Mastoiditis

Mastoiditis is an infection of the mastoid bone of the skull. The mastoid is located just behind the ear.

Causes
Mastoiditis is most often caused by a middle ear infection (acute otitis media). The infection may spread from the ear to the mastoid bone. The bone has a honeycomb-like structure that fills with infected material and may break down.

The condition is most common in children. Before antibiotics, mastoiditis was one of the leading causes of death in children. The condition does not occur very often today. It is also much less dangerous.
Symptoms

  • Drainage from the ear
  • Ear pain or discomfort
  • Fever, may be high or suddenly increase
  • Headache
  • Hearing loss
  • Redness of the ear or behind the ear
  • Swelling behind ear, may cause ear to stick out
Exams and Tests
An exam of the head may reveal signs of mastoiditis. The following tests may show an abnormality of the mastoid bone:
  • CT scan of the ear
  • Head CT scan

A culture of drainage from the ear may show bacteria.

Treatment
Mastoiditis may be hard to treat because the medicine may not reach deeply into the bone. The condition sometimes requires repeated or long-term treatment. The infection is treated with antibiotic injections, followed by antibiotics taken by mouth.

Surgery to remove part of the bone and drain the mastoid (mastoidectomy) may be needed if antibiotic treatment does not work. Surgery to drain the middle ear through the eardrum (myringotomy) may be needed to treat the middle ear infection.

Outlook (Prognosis)
Mastoiditis can be cured. However, it may be hard to treat and may come back.

 

 

Source: NIH   MedlinePlus